10 Records out of 22207 Records

A study to determine factors affecting health and productivity of camel calves in Marsabit district of Kenya

Author: Kirui, Gilbert

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MSc

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Marsabit District/Livestock industry/Animal care/Camelus dromedarius/ ;

Abstract:

Camel rearing is faced with challenges ranging from low growth rates and high mortality in camel calves within the Arid and Semi-Arid Lands (ASALs) Livestock Production systems in Kenya. A study was conducted on the major factors associated with health and production of camel calves in Marsabit district of Kenya. The main objective of the study was to identify important health and production constraints in camel calf production in Marsabit District, which forms part of the ASAL areas in Kenya. The study was conducted for a period of twentyfour months from 2005 to 2006. The study was conducted in seven (7) study sites in three divisions (Laisamis, North Horr and Loyangalani) which were conveniently selected in Marsabit District. Study locations were selected based on accessibility and existence of manyattas for ease of adm inistration of questionnaires and accessibility of camel herds. One on one interviews were . conducted for 74 camel keepers with semi structured questionnaires being administered to collect information on camel production system, herd characteristics, ranking of production and disease constraints in camel keeping, . preventative and management practices and views of the community on importance of the camel. Camel keepers ranked high calf mortality, inadequate feed resources, low birth rates and water scarcity as some of the most important constraints in calf production. Camel calf health constraints ranked highest in importance. Others included ectoparasite infestation (ticks/fleas), trypanosomosis, diarrhoea, helminthiasis and mange. Ninety seven percent of camel keepers' supervised camel calving process with 84.9% of these monitoring the process until the calf was suckled. Milking was carried out mainly through a combination of 2 teat milking with the calf suckling the other half during milking process in the wet season. In the dry season all the teats were milked and the calf allowed to suckle after milking. When a dam of a calf died during lactation, 85.3% of camel keepers preferred to adopt the calf to another milking camel. Eighty six percent of the camel calves were kept in a night enclosure made of acacia twigs and branches to fend off wild animals. Ectoparasite control in camel calves was carried out for 89.1% of the calves. The most (93.96%) preferred method of applying acaricides' was through hand dressing. Tick control was carried out everyone to three months for 77.47% of camel calves with the other 22.5% only receiving tick control when heavy tick load was noticed. The mean age of starting helminthcontrol for camel calves was 3.4 months. Helminth control was carried out for slightly over half (50.72%) of the calves. Commercial anthelminthic preparations were preferred by 73.61 % of camel keepers over ethno veterinary/herbal preparations. Herbal antihelminthics were reported to contain mainly plant extracts of Abscinia nthelmintica. The mean age of beginning endoparasite control was 3 months. The prevalences were estimated for both morbidity and mortality events recorded for 558 camel calves studied. Of these 61.11% were females and the rest (38.89%) males. Crude mortality of preweaned camel calves was estimated at 18.6%. There was slightly higher crude mortality rate for female camel calves (20.06%) than that of male camel calves (16.67%). Herd level factors were investigated for association with crude mortality. The results showed that crude mortality was significantly (P<O.OI) lower in dewormed calves (13.07%) than in those calves, which were not, deworrned (24.36%). Mortality was significantly(P<O.01) lower for calves receiving ectoparasite control (15.69%) than that in calves with no ectoparasite control (42.62%). Confinement of calves at night in the boma was associated with significantly(P<O.Ol) lower (14.32%) mortality than those left in the open (46.05%). Watering of calves separate from adult herds was associated with significantly (P<O.OI) lower mortality (6.96%) than for cal

Factors affecting the delivery of animal health care services by community-based animal health workers in Isiolo County, Kenya

Author: Mungania, Gerrald Kimathi

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Isiolo County ; Livestock ; Animal care ; Veterinary services ; Arid and semi-arid regions ;

Abstract:

Livestock health service delivery in many developing countries is undergoing privatization as part of an international restructuring for economic development. One widely publicized initiative to refocus livestock health service delivery has been the introduction of community-based animal health workers. This initiative involves training community-selected representatives in basic animal health care and livestock production techniques. Experiences from these programs indicate that, by using existing traditional knowledge, CBAHWS programmes encourage the participation of the local communities in the design and delivery of animal health care services. With several players in the ASAL veterinary market, a quantitative assessment of the efficiency of comparative service delivery, level of outreach, and benefits to livestock keepers of each of these service systems is essential. The purpose of the study was to explore parameters important to the delivery of animal healthcare by CBAHW s. This study employed descriptive survey research. The study targeted the district Veterinary offices where the veterinary officers were the target. The office acts as a links between the ministry and the livestock keepers. The study also targeted the livestock officers who are in charge of the six divisions of the county. The study also targeted CBAHW s who deliver the primary animal health care. The study employed purposive sampling technique to select the 3 veterinary officers and 6 livestock officers in the district. At division level 5 pastoralists and 5 CBAHW s were randomly selected. Both primary and secondary data was collected from Livestock keepers and other stakeholders in the livestock industry in Isiolo County. The data was collected through observations, visits, interviews and questionnaires. Descriptive statistics was employed. The relationship between the parameters and the delivery of animal healthcare was established using correlation and regression analysis. The study found that CABWs offered most of services except meat inspection and the CABWs were more accessible as they are close to the people than the government officers. On the five key animal health service delivery parameter, it was also concluded that CBAHW s are accessible, their service are affordable and efficient. It was further concluded that CBAHWs are more preferred and more effective in Isiolo County. This study therefore recommends that the number of CBAHWS should be increased so as to reduce the distance they travel when meeting livestock keepers. This study also recommends that the CBAHWS should be trained on the effectiveness and the efficacy of convention and non convention drugs. The study will assist the government and development agencies into appropriate animal health delivery system to the marginalized poor communities and offer suggestions for policy changes and harmonization in improvement of animal health service delivery systems.

An analysis of Camel Calf growth and survival under pastoral Camel production systems in Samburu

Author: Ihuthia, Peter Mungai

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MSc

Year: 2010

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Camelus dromedarius/Animal care/Opiroi Location, Samburu District/Barsaloi Location, Samburu District/Kawop Location, Samburu District ;

Abstract:

A survey was conducted to document traditional camel and camel calf management practices in Samburu with the objective of identifying gaps and suggesting possible solutions. During the survey 59 calf records were taken and 30 respondents representing their households interviewed in Opiroi, Barsaloi and Kawop locations. The data was collected using a structured questionnaire. Linear measurements and actual live weight of the camel calves were taken so as to estimate correlations that could be used in determining calf weight. It was observed that the communities in the study area kept camels, cattle and small stock to optimize range resource use. Female animals constituted a high proportion for different livestock kept at 73% for camels, 65% for cattle, 75% for goats and 72% for sheep. The respondents reported no specific breeding programme for the camels. Breeding of closely related camels was reported by 52.15% to 60.15 % of the poor and rich wealth categories of respondents suggesting inbreeding. Abnormalities that may be related to inbreeding were reported. Feed availability was reported by 76.6% of respondents to vary with season, with the wet season providing more feed than the dry one. The seasonal feed scarcity was reported to cause camels to feed on poisonous plants. A common, but poisonous plant, Capparis tomentosa, was reported to form a significant component of the camels' diet during the dry season. A need to explore its usefulness as feed and find ways of moderating its poisonous effects was identified. Herding of camels to pasture was constrained by labour scarcity forcing restricted grazing of calves. Calf nutrition was further aggravated by competition with humans for the milk; a situation made more difficult where a market for milk existed. Either because of tradition or due to scarcity of animal health and extension services providers, the respondents were dependent on ethno-veterinary practitioners. Camel calves had an ADO of 212 g/day up to weaning at 8 months. The male calves had a higher ADO (281 g/day) than the females (168 g/day). The vegetation condition at birth, significantly (P<0.05) affected camel calf growth and survival. The mortality rates of camel calves remained unacceptably high at an average of 50% and were higher for male calves at 56% than female calves at 43%. The mortality could be due to such reported practices reported as colostrum denial, milk access limitation, malpresentation during birth and mismothering. The correlation of predicted weights and the actual live weights was high (r = 0.963) for the general regression equation derived from the three linear body measurements of abdominal girth, heart girth and shoulder height combined. Abdominal girth coefficient of determination R2 was high (91.4%) than heart girth (87%) and shoulder height (17.2%), making it the best single weight predictor. The findings determined intervention points for improving camel calf growth and survival.

An evaluation of selected factors affecting the adoption of zero-grazing dairy production system by smallholder farmers in Kirinyaga District, Keny : the case of National Dairy Development Project 1987-1995

Author: Ndegwa, Shadrack Muchemi

Awarding University: Egerton University, Kenya

Level : MSc

Year: 2004

Holding Libraries: Egerton University Library ; National Council for Science and Technology Library ;

Subject Terms: Kirinyaga District ; Dairy industry ; Zero grazing USE Animal care ; Animal care ; Cattle ; Farmers ; National Dairy Development Project (Kenya) ;

Abstract:

A strong emphasis has been placed on Agriculture in Kenya because of the role the sector plays in the economy. Intensive farming is one of the methods that can be employed to increase agricultural production. One of the enterprises that require this method of production is the dairy industry. The National Dairy Development Project was started in Kirinyaga District in 1987 with the aim of helping smallholder dairy farmers intensify dairy production through zero grazing. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of the factors that affected the adoption of zero grazing dairy production by smaller holder farmers in Kirinyaga between 1987 and 1995. The farmers though introduced to the technology did not take up the practice and adoption was low. Descriptive survey was used; propol1ionate stratified sampling was used to select a sample of 180 fanners. Data was collected by use of structured questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and inferential statistics namely Pearson's Correlation Coefficient was used to determine the relationship between adoption and the various variables. Hypotheses were tested withthe level of significance set at .05. Only the relationship between adoption of zero grazing technologies and feed availability was found to be significant. TIle level of adoption of zero grazing was low due to feed unavailability. unstable milk market, low fanner- extension agent contact, high cost of both inputs and cost of constructing the zero grazing unit. It is recommended that a benefit analysis be carried out to ascertain the afford ability and sustainability of the ,system.

Validation of participatory appraisal for use in animal health information systems in Africa

Author: Catley, C

Awarding University: University of Edinburgh, Scotland

Level : PhD

Year: 2003

Holding Libraries: Institute of Commonwealth Studies Library ;

Subject Terms: Animal care ; Information systems ;

Abstract:

ABSTRACT NOT AVAILABLE

Energy Utilization Modeling of Animal Draft Power (EUMDAP) for Kenyan small-holder semi-arid agriculture.

Author: Mungai, George S N

Awarding University: Michigan State University, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 1998

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ;

Subject Terms: Tillage ; Cattle ; Animal care ; Feeds ;

Abstract:

A computer simulation model developed by this study was used for modeling of energy utilization of draft animal power by small-holder farmers in semi-arid areas of Kenya. EUMDAP simulation modeling program can be used to monitor existing dap-syss or project a proposed system that is not operational yet. The user is provided with output data that enables decisions to be made about the current level of utilization of dap-syss. The program can also provide data about the expectations of a proposed dap-sys in terms of energy utilization, the amount of feed required to perform tillage and other tasks at the farm level as well as the time required to complete tillage operations in time for planting before the onset of rains in semi-arid lands. Simulations performed with the model showed that the current rate of dap-sys utilization in days per year can be increased from the existing average of about 60 days per year to over 100 days per year. The low utilization rate of current dap-syss can be attributed to the scarcity of alternative implements that can be used after the tillage operations season is over. The quality of feed available for draft oxen determines the energy that the animals can generate for work without losing weight. Since draft oxen in semi-arid areas lose about 20% of their body weight during the dry spell preceding the seed-bed preparation season, it is imperative that adequate feed (quality and quantity) is provided for tillage work periods if draft animals are to be maintained in optimum physical working condition.

Farmers' criteria for assessing zero grazing innovation in dairy production

Author: Muma, M A

Awarding University: Wageningen Agricultural University, Netherlands

Level : MSc

Year: 1994

Holding Libraries: National Council for Science and Technology Library ;

Subject Terms: Farmers ; Zero grazing USE Animal care ; Animal care ; Dairy industry ;

Abstract:

ABSTRACT NOT AVAILABLE

The effect of infectious bursal disease and hemorrhagic enteritis viruses on immunocompetence of turkeys

Author: Mbugua, Humphrey C W

Awarding University: University of Guelph, Canada

Level : MSc

Year: 1984

Holding Libraries: National Council for Science and Technology Library ;

Subject Terms: Infections ; Animal care ; Viruses ; Turkeys ; Poultry ; Immunology ;

Abstract:

This study was undertaken to ascertain the effects on turkeys of combined infection with hemorrhagic enteritis virus (HEV) and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) and the effect of single or combined infection with these viruses on subsequent infection with an otherwise non-pathogenic strain of avian influenza A virus. The first part of the investigation involved infection of groups of 5-week-old turkey poults with either IBDV or HEV or the two viruses combined. The effects of infection with these viruses were followed by histological examination of bursa and spleen from birds sacrificed at intervals post infection (pI) by measuring cellular immune response by whole blood blastogenesis assay with PHA stimulation and by measuring antibody response to IBDV and HEV in infected turkeys. No clinical or pathological manifestations of infectious bursal disease were observed; however, poults infected with either IBDV or IBDV + HEV developed specific neutralising antibody to IBDV from day 6 PI. No clinical signs of hemorrhagic enteritis were seen in the turkeys infected with HEV or HEV + IBDV but intranuclear inclusion bodies were observed in sections of enlarged spleens, mainly from days 6 through 14 Pl. Occasional intranuclear inclusions were observed in the liver, but not in the bursa or the intestines. Infected poults developed specific precipitating antibodies to HEV by day 12 Pl. In the second part of the investigation, birds infected with IBDV or HEV singly or together were subsequently infected with a non-pathogenic avian influenza A virus. Attempts were made to isolate influenza A virus from selected organs harvested from birds at intervals post infection. Specific HI antibodies to influenza A virus infection were measured, as were cellular immune responses by whole blood blastogenesis with influenza A virus stimulation. The results incicate that single or combined infection with IBDV and HEV did not exacerbate the invasiveness or clinical expression of influenza A virus in the turkey poults. IBDV and HEV individually or together caused a transient depression of cellular immune responses early in the infection but did not significantly affect the humoral immune responses of the turkeys when the two viruses were administered separately or together.

Cyrosurgery and immunotherapy of squamous cell carcinoma in cattle

Author: Omara-Opyene, Archangel Levi

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MSc

Year: 1981

Holding Libraries: National Council for Science and Technology Library ;

Subject Terms: Animal care ; Cattle ; Immunology ; Disease ; Cancer ;

Abstract:

An investigation was conducted to assess the incidence and identify the predisposing factors of bovine squamous cell carcinoma in Kenya. The incidence, breed susceptibility, sites of origin and age distribution of squamous cell carcinoma found in the four breeds of grade cattle in Kenya are reported along with the observed correlation between lack of pigmentation of the bovine vulvae and occurrence of bovine vulva carcinoma. Typical examples of the histology of bovine squamous cell carcinoma which were observed during histological diagnosis are also shown. The data of 18 cattle with? vulva carcinoma and 48 cattle with ocular carcinoma on which immunotherapy trials were conducted are reported. The details of the preparation of the saline phenol extract of bovine squamous cell carcinoma used in the study are outlined. The methods by which immunotherapy trials were conducted are described. It was found that bovine vulva carcinoma and bovine ocular carcinoma on the eyelid- skins did not respond to the extracts while bovine ocular carcinoma on the cornea, sclera and third eyelid responded favourably to the extract. It was noted that the larger the lesion the poorer were the prospects of regression. It is concluded that immunotherapy is a promising modality of therapy for bovine ocular car- cinoma on the cornea, sclera and third eyelid but must as yet be considered as experimental and additional trials are needed to determine its therapeutic efficacy, mechanism of action and the active antigenic substance in the extract. The data of 62 cattle with vulva carcinoma on which cryosurgery trials were conducted are reported. The methods by which cryosurgery trials were conducted and the equipment used are described. It was found that bovine vulva , carcinoma responded favourably to cryosurgery trials. It was noted that the larger the lesions the poorer were the prospects of achieving a complete cure and that the use of thermocouple needles was imperative for safe and effective treatment. It is concluded that cryosurgery is a safe and practicable technique with few complications and that it should be regarded as one of the treatments of choice for bovine vulva carcinoma especially of early clinical lesions. The results of the immunotherapy phase of this study categorize bovine squamous cell carcinoma into two groups viz: (i) bovine vulva carcinoma and bovine ocular carcinoma on the eyelid skins (ii) bovine ocular carcinoma on the cornea, sclera and third eyelid. The type of this malignancy in group I is thought to be caused by exposure of unpigmented or partly pigmented skins of the vulvae and eyelid to high levels of solar irradiation while the type of this malignancy in group II is thought to be caused by a virus. A hypothesis is advanced that breeding programmes designed to raise Ayrshire cows with high levels of melanin pigmentation on their vulvae and Hereford cattle with red around their eyes are feasible long term measures to eradicate the group I type of this malignancy. The results of the immunotherapy phase of this study indicate that the application of active-specific immunotherapy is the hope of - the future in treating the group II type of this alignancy.

Comparison of simple interrupted Gambee and crushing techniques for intestinal anastomosis in cattle

Author: Mbiuki, Stanley Mbaka

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level :

Year: 0

Holding Libraries: National Council for Science and Technology Library ; University of Nairobi Upper Kabete Library ;

Subject Terms: Comparative studies ; Intestinal anastomosis ; Animal care ; Cattle ;

Abstract:

End-on approximating techniques for intestinal anastomosis have been found to be more advantageous than everting and inverting techniques by different- investigators. The simple interrupted, gambeeand crushing anastomotic techriiques whEfn evaluated independently have usually been found to be superior to the techniques with which they were compared. Comparison of simple interrupted, gambee and crushing techniques together have not been previously reported. The purpose of -: this investigation .is to make a comparative study of the simple interrupted, gambee and crushing approximating techniques as used for intestinal anastomosis in cattle. Twenty four male cattle were used to perform anastomoses in the small intestine utilizing simple interrupted, gambee and crushing techniques for comparative studies. Six anastomoses were performed in each of 8 animals using any one of the techniques to make a total of 48 anastomoses per technique. Therefore one hundred fourty four anastomoses were performed using the three techniques. Evaluation'procedures were carried out at 4, 14, 28 and 56 days post-operatively to assess -c the efficacy of the respective techniques. Parameters investigated were: time per anastomosis and per stitch, adhesion formation,- stenosis (external and internal) and histopathologic changes. From the histologic sections, epitbelializati~n, inflammatory reaction, muscle layer approximation, cellular intensity and cell types were evaluated. I~crease in-thickness of anastomotic site relative to the adjacent and normal areas were also evaluated. Results of adhesion formation, external stenosis, epithelialization, inflammatory reaction, and muscle layer approximation were given numerical scores to make the comparison objective and easier to visualize. The results showed that time per suture was found to be a more reliable indicator of the time taken to perform an intestinal anastomosis. The simple interrupted technique took the least mean time per suture (36~6 sec.) followed by gambee technique (49.5 sec.) and crusbing technique was last with 57.4 seconds. There were no adhesions in 11% .of gambee' anastomoses, 58%.of crushing anastomoses and ? 21% of simple interrupted anastomoses. This clearly demonstrated gambee as the technique that induces least adhesions. Stenosis as seen externally was absent in 62% of gambee anastomoses, 531 of simple interrupted anastomoses and 40% o~ crushing anastomoses indicating that gamhee was a better technique in this regard. Luminal stenosis evaluated 1rom radio- graphs showed a mean narrowing o~ 30.6% in gambee anastomoses, 36% in simple interrupted anastomoses and 38.9% in crushi'I1? anastomoses, thus implying gambee was a superior technique. Epithelial healing was more or less complete at 4 days in simple in~errupted anastomoses followed by gambeeoastomoses with crushing anastomoses having poor epithe lia1 healing. However at 14 days. the healing in the crushing anastomoses overtook that in the other techniques. Simple interrupted anastomoses were inferior in the epithelial bealing to the anastomoses performed us i ng the other two techniques at 14 days. After 14 days all the anastomoses showed a similar degree of epithelial healing . Overall, gambee anastomoses had a slightly better epithelial he~ling than the other two techniques. Generally, inflammatory reaction decreased with time. There was a greater decrease in gambee anastomoses followed by crushing ana- stomoses and simple interrupted anastomoses? showed the greatest inflammatory reaction. Muscle layer approximation apparently did not change with time but remained as it was after anastomosis for all techniques. However, gambee anastomoses showed the best alignment followed by crushing anastomoses and simple interrupted anastomoses had least efficacy in alignment of the muscle layer. Cellular intensity was high in all the techniques at 4 days due to the increased number of cells in the early proliferative phase and late lag