333 Records out of 22207 Records

The politics and administration of agricultural development in Kenya : the Kenya Tea Development Authority

Author: Steeves, Jeffrey Sayre

Awarding University: University of Toronto, Canada

Level : PhD

Year: 19975

Holding Libraries: University Microfilms International ; National Council for Science and Technology Library ;

Subject Terms: Politics/Agricultural economics/Kenya Tea Development Authority/ ;

Abstract:

The Kenya Tea Development Authority is one of the most successful agricultural development programmes in Sub-Saharan Africa. Unlike re-settlement schemes such as the Gezira in the Sudan or the ujaama villages in Tanzania, the Authority has introduced a new cash crop among widely scattered small farmers within the former African Reserves of Kenya. Its achievement seems even more remarkable in that it has introduced a technically demanding estate crop as a viable smallholder enterprise. Utilizing an integrated approach to agricultural development, that is, the provision of a wide range of services for the farmer within one institutional framework, the Authority has staked a leading position within the world tea industry. The central reason for this success has been the institution's early ability to generate local enthusiasm for tea-growing and a system of tight central control. The first can be traced to a credit system which offered credit in kind and on terms sufficient to allow all strata within the farming community to participate in the programme. The second is due to a system of close field supervision with strong links to the central offices. Over time, however, for financial reasons the K.T.D.A. found it necessary to restrict and then eliminate credit; this led to a fundamental challenge to the Authority's structured system of control. It was found that the ability of the institution to plan, direct and implement its policies depended directly on the participation of all strata of the farming community. This study identifies the strata which were relevant to the tea programme and their significance for central goals. The research was undertaken in Kenya during 1970 and 19]1 a particularly interesting period for it was during this time that the full effects of the elimination of credit were being felt. The author spent six months studying the central offices of the Authority and in addition lived in each of Nyeri, Meru, Murang'a, Kericho, Kisii and Kakamega Districts for a minimum period of one month conducting interviews and analyzing documentary materials. Documents pertaining to the other t ea-gr-owfng districts were also analyzed in combination with follow .?.. up interviews in the core districts. The research findings reveal the complexi~y of the agricultural community, The credit revisions of the 1960's and the field reaction illustrate the importance of the strata divisions within the farming community. The full effects of the exclusion of lower strata farmers from formal and legal participation led to aq alliance between lower strata farmers and lower field staff. This alliance directly threatened central control. The study has, therefore, direct relevance to public policy formation and development efforts related to rural Kenya. The major conclusions can be stated as follows: A.Implementation of integrated agricultural development programmes requires control. B. Control depends on an organization establishing its legitimacy within the total farming community. C. The legitimacy of the organization is directly tied to the participation of all strata levels on a continuing basis in the programme of development. Thus, implementation can only be realized by the inclusion of all strata at terms and on conditions which they can meet,

Information Communication Technology (ICT) and agriculture development projects in Kenya

Author: Muchena, Lawrence Muthuuri

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MBA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Information technology ; Communications systems ; Agricultural economics ; Project management ;

Abstract:

This study examines the use of Information Technology & Communication in agricultural development in Kenya and evaluates its impact, obstacles to ICT use and strategies to overcome these obstacles. In order to determine this linkage, a livelihood approach has been adopted. The livelihoods framework for analysis provides a way of thinking which views the poor as operating in a context of vulnerability. Within this context, the poor have access to certain assets or poverty-reducing factors. These gain meaning and value through the structures and processes of the prevailing institutional, organizational, and social environment. A cross-sectional survey was carried out using a questionnaire that focused on the level of ICT usage and the level of impact measured using the livelihood assets of human, social, physical, finance and natural. The impact indicators were based on these assets which are widely defined as objectives for each agricultural development project. The findings show a fair level ofICT usage in agricultural development and its positive impact widely realised in achieving the short term expectations of the projects. The study also reveals that obstacles to ICT usage were adequately addressed by the strategies to enhance ICT usage employed by individual projects. There is further need to analyse each ICT component and link it to its quantifiable contribution to the livelihood impact indicators.

A study on the agricultural risk management strategies by the Agricultural Finance Corporation of Kenya

Author: Musima, Bella

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MBA

Year: 2012

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Agricultural economics ; Risk management ; Strategic management ; Agricultural Finance Corporation (Kenya) ; Parastatals ;

Abstract:

The study set out to establish the risks facing Agricultural Finance Corporation, determine the risk management strategies deployed to counter these risks and assess the effectiveness of these strategies in meeting the overall corporate ~bjectives. This study set out to establish the relationship between risk management and the performance of the Agricultural Finance Corporation. The study involved the analysis of credit performance indicators for the period 2010 to 2012. A trend analysis was established, on the basis of which a descriptive analysis was conducted to determine the impact of implementing risk management strategies on the performance of the Agricultural Finance Corporation. An overall analysis showed that the Corporation is significantly affected by external factors, including political interference and government policy but that internal factors are also contributing to the deteriorating performance of its loan book. The analysis shows that following the adoption of risk management in its lending operations, Agricultural Finance Corporation is realizing an improvement in the performance of its loan portfolio.

Environmental diplomacy and economic developement : the impact of climate change on Agriculture in Kenya, 1970-2010

Author: Kaei, Robert Kibor

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2011

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Climate change/Agricultural economics/Environmental protection ;

Abstract:

The significance of environmental diplomacy is becoming more elaborate by the day since environmental issues ranging from climate change, hazardous chemicals to biodiversity loss are affecting almost every aspect of policy making in the world. Environmental protection and sustainability remain paramount due to the complex and highly important reality of current environmental challenges that threaten human survival. Although efforts to counter and manage environmental problems anchor on international collaboration through international environmental governance involving many actors for example the emergence of United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) and other agencies, there seem to emerge other complex challenges in regard to environmental protection and sustainability most noticeably climate change. This study seeks to address the impact of climate change on agriculture in Kenya with a special focus on agriculture as the leading sector in the Kenyan economy in terms of its contribution to real Gross Domestic Product (GDP) from 1970 to the year 2010. The performance of the agricultural sector is determined by crop production which depends on a number of factors; most importantly country's endowment of soils and climate resources. Owing to the significant role agriculture plays in Kenya, economic development is largely dependent on the performance of agriculture. Indeed Kenya recorded the highest GDP of 7.8 per cent and 5.8 per cent in the national economy and agriculture respectively in the period between 1970 and 1974. The study indicates that agriculture contributes significantly to economic growth in Kenya by providing raw materials for industries, contributing to employment and providing food security. Sustainable agriculture is therefore critical in ensuring economic profitability, environmental stewardship and improved quality of life of the people of Kenya. The study establishes that like other environmental challenges, climate change is trasboundary in nature and requires concerted efforts from states, international organizations and non-states actors. Based on the theory of international cooperation, the study notes that environmental problems that lead to climate change require collective action of both state and non-state actors due to the anarchic nature of international system. The study further establishes that cooperation is motivated by a balance of absolute and relative gains and the extent of durability of such a cooperative arrangement. The study identifies possible ways of managing climate change in Kenya with regard to preserving ecosystems and biodiversity on one hand and adaptation on the other so as to enhance sustainable agriculture, hence economic development. This stems from the notion of international environmental governance through international negotiations that would cascade to the domestic level. Data for the study will be collected using content analysis, scientific analysis and interview methodologies.

Analysing the supply response of wheat in Kenya : a time series approach

Author: Nguyo, Elizabeth Wanjiru

Awarding University: University of Nairobi, Kenya

Level : MA

Year: 2009

Holding Libraries: University of Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library ;

Subject Terms: Wheat ; Agricultural production ; Agricultural economics ;

Abstract:

The annual rate of food production has fallen over the years in Kenya. This has resulted into food shortages, sometimes culminating in famine situations. In order to assuage this situation, there is need to explore ways of increasing food production. Wheat is one of Kenya's staple food crops and is grown by both large and small scale farmers. Due to the fact that wheat is one of the main staple food among Kenyans, its production has gained a lot of emphasis since failure to produce enough wheat would mean that food security is threatened. This research project analyzes the determinants of wheat production in Kenya for the period 1968-2008. The study focuses on both the price and non price factors influencing wheat production including the exchange rate, macro-economic environment, credit to the agricultural sector, time trend, political climate, wheat producer prices, prices of competing crop and the weather. An error correction model was used to analyze the long-run and short-run effects of various factors determining wheat production. The study found real exchange rates, access to credit and public investment in agriculture to be insignificant both in the short-run and in the long-run. The producer prices of wheat, weather, maize producer prices, time trend and macro-economic environment were all found to be significant in explaining wheat supply response in Kenya. The study recommends a compatible and integrated policy regarding the provision of input subsidies and enhanced support for the agricultural sector to improve production. To sustain wheat production, an improvement in the institutional framework and policy environment is necessary.

An economic analysis of the impacts of trade liberalization on Kenya's maize sector.

Author: Nzuma, Jonathan Makau

Awarding University: University of Guelph, Canada

Level : PhD

Year: 2008

Holding Libraries: Dissertation Abstracts International ;

Subject Terms: Economics ; Trade liberalization ; Maize ; Agricultural economics ; Impact analysis ; Grain ;

Abstract:

Kenya like most other developing countries has been reforming her staple grain markets since 1986. In these sectors, market reforms were initiated as a key component of the economy-wide structural adjustment programmes (SAPs). The SAPs were later strengthened and made irreversible by Kenya's commitments at the multilateral trade negotiations. The reforms were envisaged to improve the sectors terms of trade as a means of stimulating food production. However, the impacts of trade reforms on Kenya's maize sector remain controversial. Thus, there is need for empirical research to inform government interventions in this sector. This study evaluates the impacts of trade liberalization and their distributional effects on stakeholders in Kenya's maize sector. Specifically, the objectives are threefold: to assess the price responsiveness of producers, wholesalers and consumers, to quantify the market and welfare impacts of trade liberalization and to draw policy recommendations. The study uses recent developments in time series econometrics based on cointegration techniques and error correction models (ECM) to estimate price responses. To quantify the impacts of trade liberalization, a partial equilibrium model (PEM), which accounts for market interrelationships at the farm, wholesale and retail levels is developed. The elasticities of supply and demand were estimated using annual cereal production and consumption data for the period 1963-2005 from Kenya's statistical office. In all cases, the estimated models performed well on theoretical and statistical grounds. All own-price elasticities had the expected signs and were statistically significant. On the basis of the Marshallian elasticities, cereals can be considered as necessities in Kenya. All long-run own-price acreage elasticities were elastic. Similarly, the long-run own-price elasticities at the intermediate level were elastic. The elastic price responses imply that cereal producer responses in Kenya are quite high, suggesting a significant potential for the sector's response to trade liberalization. The results from the trade policy simulations suggest that tariff reductions yield price decreases across the three market levels. The declining prices increase maize consumption but reduce domestic production. Consequently, consumer surplus increases while producer surplus decreases. However, the gain in consumer surplus is not sufficient to compensate the loss in producer surplus. Thus, Kenya's implementation of the Uruguay Round trade liberalization commitments leaves the maize sector worse off. Any further tariff reductions without compensating maize producers cannot be recommended based on the compensation principle.

Essays on off-farm labor market participation, farm production decisions and household economic wellbeing : empirical evidence from rural Kenya.

Author: Mathenge, Mary W Kiiru

Awarding University: Michigan State University, USA

Level : PhD

Year: 2008

Holding Libraries: Dissertation Abstracts International ;

Subject Terms: Economics ; Agricultural economics ; Labour force ; Essays ; Rural areas ;

Abstract:

This study uses household level data collected across different regions of rural Kenya to study household welfare dynamics, engagement in the off-farm labor market and its effects on agricultural intensification for these rural households. The dissertation consists of three separate essays. The first essay estimates a dynamic panel data model of income to determine the pattern of income growth for these rural households. The paper seeks to determine the relationship between educational attainment and the initial economic position of households on their subsequent income growth and mobility. Results show strong evidence of (low) income persistence for the poor and those in the low agricultural potential areas without at least a secondary school education. As expected, higher education seems to reduce income persistence for the very poor and those in the low potential areas, but also enhances convergence for those in the high potential areas. Overall, the results indicates the potential role of education in not only breaking the cycle of poverty for those trapped in it, but also its ability to allow increased recovery from income shocks. Notably, there is no conclusive evidence of the pattern of income growth or the role of education for non-poor households, implying that such are less susceptible to long-term effects of income shocks in either direction. The second essay explores the relationship between off-farm work and farm production decisions. In particular, the study examines the effects of a household's involvement in off-farm work on farm-input use and intensification namely, fertilizer and improved seed on maize production. The empirical question of research in this paper relate to whether off-farm earnings contribute to the financing of productivity enhancing investments in agriculture especially in credit constrained situations. The results from the study suggest differences in the impacts of off-farm work on input use and intensification across different inputs and off-farm activity types. While the results suggests possible use of off-farm earnings for input purchase especially for those without other forms of credit, the 'combined' input package seems to represent a substantially greater commitment and one not possibly attractive to those with higher off-farm earnings. Finally, the third essay seeks to analyze the influence of agricultural and agroecological factors in facilitating access to and earnings from the off-farm labor market for these rural households. The study explores how these farm households respond ex-ante to risky production environments and ex-post to unexpected rainfall shocks. Results indicate that these rural households engage in off-farm work as a long-term strategy to deal with anticipated weather risks to their farming operations. Although the results do not show significant short-term engagements as a result of unexpected rainfall shocks, there is evidence of greater reliance on remittance income and petty agricultural wage labor in response to such unexpected rainfall shocks.

Ecological-economic modelling and implications of land use change and wetlands extent on freshwater fisheries : the case of Lake Victoria (East Africa) [Kenya].

Author: Simonit, S

Awarding University: University of York, England

Level : PhD

Year: 2007

Holding Libraries: ;

Subject Terms: Agriculture/Land use/Resource management/Agricultural economics/Fishing industry/Lake Victoria, Kenya/ ;

Abstract:

Watershed degradation and the conversion of wetlands to alternative uses affect water quality, having profound implications for the freshwater ecosystem and fisheries of Lake Victoria. Through dynamic simulations using the Ecopath approach we show that eutrophication may explain the sudden upsurge of the introduced Nile perch during the 1980s. The Nile perch population explosion during the 1980s caused a profound transformation of the fishing industry leading to a dramatic increase in fishing effort. To quantify the combined effect of eutrophication and fishing effort on the aggregate fish stock and fishery we specify and estimate a biomass dynamics model, which embeds a measure of phytoplankton biomass as an environmental variable. We found that in a eutrophic state, which for the Kenyan waters of Lake Victoria was above an estimated chlorophyll-a concentration threshold of 17.11 mg m-3, a further increase in phytoplankton biomass would cause a decrease in aggregate fish stock biomass and landings respectively. We then model the relation between land use change and water quality, considering the nutrient retention function of wetlands. First, we identify catchment-based indicators, in particular price indicators and wetland extent, which may anticipate changes in environmental variables driving stock assessment models. We then study both nutrient loading and wetland reclamation externalities to the fishery sector, focusing on the Yala swamp, one of the largest wetlands in the Kenyan basin of Lake Victoria. Finally we propose a spatially distributed land use tax as policy instrument for reaching the desired objective of changing farmers? behaviour and maximising the total economic benefit to society.

Economic analysis of smallholder agricultural production under conditions of risk : the case of Vihiga and Kilifi Districts in Kenya

Author: Kuyiah, J W

Awarding University: Egerton University, Kenya

Level : MSc

Year: 2007

Holding Libraries: Egerton University Library ; International Livestock Research Institute Library ;

Subject Terms: Economics/Vihiga District/Kilifi District/Socioeconomic factors/Agricultural economics/Risk/ ;

Abstract:

This study investigates how risk affects production decisions of smallholder farmers in Vihiga and Kilifi districts. t further explores the possibilities of raising farm production and income under existing conditions in the study sites. Knowledge of how these farmers make production decision under conditions of risk and uncertainly are important in the development of appropriate strategies necessary to drive agricultural intensification and development in the smallholder sector to match raising aggregate food demand. Gross margin analysis is done to establish the relative competitiveness of key enterprises and efficiency of resources use on the enterprises and efficiency of resource use on the surveyed farms. Coefficients of variation of yields, price and gross margins of the various enterprises are estimated to give an indication of the risks associated with the production of these enterprises. Linear programming analysis is used to identify optimal farm plans feasible with the given set of farm resources endowments and constraints. MOTAD analysis is done to generate a feasible set of risk-efficient farm plans that can be used as a guide to minimize production risks at farm level. Results indicate that the presence of yield and price risks, coupled with the desire for food self-sufficiency lead to sub-optimal resource allocation at farm level. The findings also show that there is scope to increase farm income and reduce risks through investing in high-value crop and livestock enterprises. In the absence of credit and insurance, livestock and non-farm income may offer a viable alternative in risk mitigation and overall farm development. Cash constraints and small land sizes are the two most important factors that inhibit realization of higher farm incomes and optimal production at farm level. There is need for policies that spur investment in public infrastructure, rural financial markets, private investment, and support institutions to address the problems of high transaction costs to investors, and reduce risks faced by farmers.

Analysis of resource use in smallholder food crop production at River Njoro watershed, Kenya

Author: Murithi, Anthony Gikandi

Awarding University: Egerton University, Kenya

Level : MSc

Year: 2007

Holding Libraries: Egerton University Library ;

Subject Terms: Agricultural economics ; Crops ; Prices ; Seeds ; Fertilizers ; Labour force ; Maize ; Beans ; Land use ; Njoro River, Kenya ; Farmers ; Nessuit, Kenya ; Ngata, Kenya ; Baruti, Kenya ; Kaptembwa, Kenya ;

Abstract:

This research explores how small-scale farmers in River Njoro Watershed in Kenya allocate resources to production of the main food crops in order to understand the underlying causes of enterprise productivity differentials. The River Njoro watershed stretches from the Mau forest to Lake Nakuru; it is part of the on-going research under the Sustainable Management of Watersheds (SUMAWA), Collaborative Research Support Programme (CRSP). The study was done in the five locations that fall within the watershed, namely: Nessuit, Njoro, Ngata, Baruti and Kaptembwa. A representative sample of 120 small scale farmers was studied. It was only possible to collect cross-sectional data during the study. The study basically used primary data, collected using a Schedule, which was administered to the sampled farmers using face-to-face interviews. A translog specification of production function and linear programming procedures were used to analyse the data. SAS and GAMS software's were used for the analysis. Results indicate that farmers in the study area allocated the biggest portion of their farms to Maize-bean intercrop and that Potatoes were not included in the optimal programme. The Allen and Morishima elasticities of substitution among pairs of inputs and price elasticities of factor demands were computed. The results indicate that all the three enterprises are substitutes except in the Maize-bean intercrop, which are in the inelastic range. In the three enterprises seeds are very sensitive to their own price changes while land in maize-bean intercrop and labour in potato and wheat enterprises are sensitive to the changes in the prices of other inputs but least sensitive to their own prices. The results further indicate that the increase in prices of seeds, labour and fertilizers used in the Maize-bean intercrop is not favourable since it will trigger more land use. Policies should thus dwell on the increment of output without the expansion of land under cultivation.